A reaction against social liberalism in the late twentieth century, often called neoliberalism, led to monetarist economic policies and a reduction in government provision of services. However, this reaction did not result in a return to classical liberalism, as governments continued to provide social services and retained control over economic policy.
Social justice is based on the concepts of human rights and equality and involves a greater degree of economic egalitarianism through progressive taxation, income redistribution, or even property redistribution. These policies aim to achieve what developmental economists refer to as more equality of opportunity than may currently exist in some societies, and to manufacture equality of outcome in cases where incidental inequalities appear in a procedurally just system.
Equality of outcome, equality of condition, or equality of results is the goal, central to some political ideologies, of reducing or eliminating incidental inequalities in material condition between individuals or households in a society. This usually means equalizing income and/or total wealth to a certain degree by, for example, granting a greater amount of income and/or total wealth to poorer individuals or households at the expense of wealthy individuals or households.
Equality of outcome can be distinguished from the concept of equality of opportunity. Policies that seek an equality of outcome often require a deviation from the strict application of concepts such as meritocracy, and legal notions of equality before the law for all citizens. 'Equality seeking' policies may also have a redistributive focus.
Equality of outcome may be incorporated into a philosophy that ultimately seeks equality of opportunity. Moving towards a higher equality of outcome (albeit not perfectly equal) can lead to an environment more adept at providing equality of opportunity by eliminating conditions that restrict the possibility for members of society to fulfill their potential. For example, a child born in a poor, dangerous neighborhood with poor schools and little access to health care may be significantly disadvantaged in his attempts to maximize use of talents, no matter his work ethic. Thus, even proponents of meritocracy may promote some level of equality of outcome in order to create a society capable of truly providing equality of opportunity.
= = = = = = = = = =
What the blog postings on liberalism will establish:
That “social justice” may have started out as a secular concept, but it has become a civil religion – a churchless yet faith-based system of belief with its own ethical standards and aesthetics.
That “equality of outcome” is the chief goal of this civil religion because the sameness of outcome represents a utopia of the civil religion.
That as a faith-based system, modern liberalism is subject to the biases and logical denials we have seen in the libertarians and the Christian right. The overall result is a philosophical system of low quality and negative quiddity.